The technologies that are heavily marketed today are often in the category of “physical water conditioners” (PWC). PWC devices include magnetic, electromagnetic, electrical frequency, and crystallization of polymer beads. All of these techniques claim to achieve the same result of creating an effect on the dissolved salts that are the source of scaling in water. PWCs do not stop all scale from forming, they only claim to make scale form in such a way that it doesn't stick. PWCs do not produce “soft water." Many of these companies are marketing their systems as an alternative to salt-based softening. The technique they use might help with scaling in hot water, although that performance is not validated or demonstrated to be consistent, but none of these devices produce soft water. lf consumers want hard water that might not scale as badly as un-treated water then these products might have a place in the market. But, if consumers are expecting soft water these products will disappoint anyone who buys it with this expectation.